Project Director, Database Maintenance
Marie-Odile Junker
Editorial Committee
Jérémie Ambroise (since 2018)
Anne-Marie Baraby (since 2007)
Marie-Odile Junker (since 2007)
Yvette Mollen (since 2007)
Editorial Committee Support
Laurel Anne Hasler (since 2020)
Marguerite MacKenzie (since 2020)
Hélène St-Onge (2007-2012, 2021-2022)
Programming and Updates of the Applet
Delasie Torkornoo (since 2007)
Database Design
  • The original design was created in a Toolbox database developed by Bill Jancewicz for Naskapi verbs in the late 1990s, before being adapted and expanded to East Cree in 2001-2002 by Bill Jancewicz & Marie-Odile Junker. It was further developed by Marie-Odile Junker, Terry Stewart (2005), and Delasie Torkornoo (since 2007) to be compatible with the East Cree applet, online dictionary and the inflected verb forms search engine (
  • The database was adapted to Innu by Marie-Odile Junker in 2006 with subsequent alterations continuing to date.
  • Publication:

    Junker, Marie-Odile & Terry Stewart. 2008. Building Search Engines for Algonquian Languages. In Karl S. Hele and Regna Darnell (eds.). Papers of the 39th Algonquian Conference. London: University of Western Ontario Press, 378-411.

History of Linguistic Documentation of Innu verbs
Initial data collection of Innu verb conjugations by Anne-Marie Baraby (1978-2004):
  • Documentation of verb paradigms (order, mood, tense for the 4 verb classes) from the Sheshatshit dialect from 1978, from Montreal and Sheshatshit.
  • Methodology: elicitation of data in a formal context.
  • Principal Innu consultants: Mathieu Rich (late) and Suzanne Rich, with the collaboration of Angela Rich Andrew and Martha Andrew.
  • Publications:

    Baraby, Anne-Marie. 1985. Aspects of the morphology of verb inflections of the Montagnais of Sheshatshit. Master’s Thesis, University of Montreal. 301 p.

    Baraby, Anne-Marie. 1986. Verbal inflections in the Montagnais of Sheshatshiu. In W. Cowan (eds.) Proceedings of the seventeenth Algonquian Conference. Ottawa : Carleton University, 1-14.

  • Documentation of verb paradigms in the Nutashkuan dialect: fieldwork from 1987 to 1989 in Nutashkuan, as part of the project Linguistic description of the Montagnais dialect of Natashquan (F.C.A.R. funds, A.C.S.A.I.R. program, Quebec ministry of Education, attributed to Anne-Marie Baraby).
  • Methodology: elicitation of data in a formal context.
  • Principal Innu consultants: Charlotte Bellefleur and Christine Kaltush.
  • Standardization of orthography of verb forms from 1997 to 1999.
  • Production, from 1997 to 2001, of a working document (Baraby, Anne-Marie, Grammar of the Innu language: chapter concerning verbs, unpublished manuscript, 2001) documenting the verb conjugations for the Innu dialects, presenting model verbs in their standardized form, with annotations that take into consideration the dialectal variations as well as phonetic and phonological particularities.
  • Publications:

    Baraby, Anne-Marie. 1999. Practical guide of principal conjugations in Montagnais (1st edition). Sept-îles: Montagnais Cultural and Educational Institute.

    Baraby, Anne-Marie. 2004. Practical guide of principal conjugations in Montagnais (2nd edition revised and corrected). Sept-îles: Montagnais Cultural and Educational Institute.

Subsequent data collection (after 2004): Supplementary data was collected with the help of the Institut Tshakapesh from 2007 to 2023:
  • Conjugations of relational verbs (TI and AI) as well as passive verbs (TA) were documented by Lynn Drapeau for certain paradigms (01, 03, 09, 10, 11, 17a), in the context of SSHRC projects in partnership with the Institut Tshakapesh (856-2009-0073 and 890-2012-133); the data was provided to us in 2012, then adapted to our model verbs and further verified with speakers.
  • Extensive verifications of the data were made by the editors of the conjugation applet during the development of the online version of the Innu dictionary (SSHRC, CURA, 833-2004-1033, grant awarded to Marguerite MacKenzie and Marie-Odile Junker, in partnership with the Institut Tshakapesh: 2005-2010)
  • New verb stems were documented by Anne-Marie Baraby during projects to develop online educational resources (Grants from Heritage Canada to the Institut Tshakapesh, 2009-2014) directed by Yvette Mollen and Marie-Odile Junker.
  • The first edition of the online applet was created in 2011: Baraby, A.-M. and Junker, M.-O. (2011) Innu Verb Conjugations (1st edition).
  • Numerous corrections to the database were made during the course of recording between 2011 and 2014.
  • Additions and corrections to the database text and sounds were made between 2016 and 2020.
  • New recordings made by Yvette Mollen in 2019-2020 were added to the database and published online.
  • New verb stems were documented by Jérémie Ambroise, Marie-Odile Junker and Yvette Mollen in 2021-2023. Additions and corrections to the database text and sounds were made again in 2022-2023. Thank you to Renée Lambert-Brétière, Jackson Mitchell, and Maurice-Gaston Du Berger for their occasional support in 2022.
Elders and Resource Persons Consulted (over the years)
Mathieu Rich (Sheshatshiu)
Suzanne Rich (Sheshatshiu)
Angela Rich Andrew (Sheshatshiu)
Martha Andrew (Sheshatshiu)
Richard Mollen (Unaman-shipu)
Charlotte Bellefleur (Nutashkuan)
Christine Kaltush (Nutashkuan)
Judith Mestokosho (Nutashkuan)
Raphaël Mollen (Ekuanitshit)
Kathleen André (Mani-utenam)
Philomène Jourdain (Uashat)
Adelina Bacon (Pessamit)
Jean-Baptiste Benjamin (Pessamit)
Louise Canapé (Pessamit)
Sound recording done at Carleton University (2011-2020), at Makusham studio (2014) and at Université de Montréal (2023)
Voices of: Yvette Mollen (Ekuanitshit)
Hélène St-Onge (Pessamit)
Research Assistants (at Carleton University)
Sound editing: Jérémie Ambroise (2013-2014)
Claire Owen (2013-2014)
Gabrielle Lacroix (2013-2014)
Caitlyn Martinuzzi (2014)
Laurel Anne Hasler (2020-2021)
Coordination of sound publishing: Claire Owen (2013-2014)
Data entry, verification and morpheme analysis: Timothy di Leo Browne (2008-2009)
Data entry, verification: Laurel Anne Hasler (2019-2023)
Financial and institutional support
Institut Tshakapesh, Heritage Canada, Social Science and Humanities Research Council (856-2004-1028, 833-2004-1033, 856-2009-0081, 856-2014-1199, grants to Marie-Odile Junker), Carleton University, Université de Montréal (since 2022).
Open-source, General Public Licence 3.0 (
  • Latest edition (2020-2023): HTML output generated by Python script.
  • Second edition (2014): HTML output generated by CakePHP framework (CakePHP version 2.4, running on PHP 5 and SQLite).
  • First edition (2011): HTML output generated by a Python TurboGears framework (TurboGears version 0.9, Python version 2)
  • Source code for both versions is available upon request (

Ambroise, J.; Baraby, A.-M.; Junker, M.-O.; Mollen, Y. (2023). Conjugation of Innu verbs (6th ed.). Available at: