|it is big, large
|it is covered with snow
The two verbs above are distinguished by their stem: the verb stem of mishau is misha- and ends in a, while that of ańakuneu is ańakune- and ends in e. Verb endings can vary according to the form of the stem. There are six stem types for inanimate intransitive verbs (VII):
- Stems ending in long a, i, e: mishau, timiu, ańakuneu
- Stems ending in short i: apishashu (apishashi+u)
- Stems ending in pańi: pikupańu (pikupańi+u)
- Stems ending in u(n): nipiu(n)
- Stems ending in u: kuishkumu
- Stems ending in n: takuan
To identify a VII stem, it is usually necessary to look at forms other than the dictionary form (third person Independent Indicative Present). The conjunct shows the stem vowel. For example, the following two verbs end in -u in the Independent, but in the Conjunct the stem vowel reappears before the -t : …it and …ut.
–> Is it an i or u stem? We can tell by adding negation.
|it’s not small
|the path is straight
|the path is not straight