shitamu it is set up tight shitamuipan it was set up tight
mińumu it is set up well apu mińumut it is not set up well

Verbs like shitamu or mińumu have stems ending in u. The u can be long or short; the length is not marked in standard spelling.

The eastern dialects have a greater number of verbs with stems ending in -u, because, for many of these verbs, there is a form ending in -un in the western dialects: shipeku / shipekun it’s green, nipiu / nipiun it’s wet. In fact, verbs that alternate between u and un according to dialect are treated together, and make up their own type of stem; they can be found in the dictionary with their alternate form, as follows: shipeku(n). The stem type discussed here refers to stems that always end in u in all dialects, even the western ones.

Note that in the form shitamuipan above, an i is added to the ending pan, as if the stem ended with a consonant. For u stems, in the independent, modal suffixes are preceded with the vowel -i--ipan-itak-ishapan-itshe-ikupan. This is one of the particularities of this conjugation in -u.

mińumu it is set up well mińumuitshe it must be set up well
pimamu it is set up crooked apu pimamut it is not set up crooked
shitamu it is set up tight shitamuipan it was set up tight
matshamu it is poorly set up matshamuipan it was poorly set up
mińumu the path is good apu mińumut the path is not good
uakamu the path has a bend uakamuipan the path had a bend
kuishkumu the path is straight apu kuishkumut the path is not straight
ńutinamu it is exposed to the wind apu ńutinamut it is not exposed to the wind
kashkuanashku it’s cloudy kashkuanashkuipan it was cloudy
  • Normally, when a verb stem ends in a vowel and a suffix beginning with a consonant is added (-pan, -tak, -shapan, etc.), the inflection is added as is. If the stem ends in a consonant, however, the vowel -i- is introduced. The presence of this vowel can be analyzed in different ways: either it is part of the stem which would then end in ui, and this vowel would be deleted in certain situations; or it is part of the modal suffix and it is deleted when the stem ends with a long vowel; or it is added between 2 consonants (that of the stem ending and that of the suffix) to link the stem and the inflection. In the case of II u stems, the situation is mixed:
    • Generally, the u of the stem acts like a vowel; this is the case in the Independent Indicative Present, with the addition of the obviative -ń- (mińumuńu [her/his] path is good), and in the conjunct (apu mińumut the path is not good).
    • In the Independent, when modal suffixes are added -pan-tak-shapan-tshe-kupan, the u- of the stem becomes a semi-consonant [w], and the modal suffixes must be preceded by the vowel -i--ipan-itak-ishapan-itshe-ikupan, as if the stem ended with a consonant. Furthermore, these modal suffixes have the particularity of lengthening the preceding vowel, in this case the i inserted between the stem u and the ending: mińumu+i+pan=mińumuipan it was set up well.
    • In the 3rd person of the Independent Indicative Present, the suffix –u merges with the u of the stem: mińumu+u=mińumu.

related topics
Verb Stems Roots, stems and inflections
Verb Classes Verb conjugations