The stem of these verbs alternates between t and sh: for example, the verb nateu has a stem that sometimes ends in t, sometimes in sh as in tshinashin.
A verb like minuateus/he likes him/her, it (anim) is conjugated with a stem that sometimes ends in sh: tshiminuashinyou like me, sometimes in t: tshiminuatitinI like you. The dictionary form has a t: minuateu. Another example is mueshtateus/he misses him/her: nimueshtatauI miss him/her, apu mueshtashits/he does not miss me.
The form of the stem with sh is used in the following cases:
With all local direct forms in the Independent, the Conjunct and the Imperative (2s-1s, 2p-1s, 2s-1p, 2p-1p).
you greet me
you (pl) greet me
you greet us or you (pl) greet us
you don’t greet me
you (pl) don’t greet me
you don’t greet us or you (pl) don’t greet us
(you pl) greet me!
greet us! or (you pl) greet us!
In the Conjunct, in addition to local direct forms, with mixed inverse forms having as complement a 1st person singular or plural exclusive and a 3rd person, singular or plural, non-obviative or obviative subject (3s-1s, 3p-1s, 4-1s, 3s-1p, 3p-1p, 4-1p.)
s/he doesn’t like me
they don’t like me
s/he [his/her brother] doesn’t like me
s/he doesn’t like us (exclusive)
they don’t like us (exclusive)
s/he [his/her brother] doesn’t like us (exclusive)
In the Imperative Indicative Present, in addition to local direct forms, with mixed forms where the subject is the 2nd person singular and the complement is the 3rd person non-obviative (2s-3s, 2s-3p).
In the Imperative Indicative Future and the Imperative Indirect, only with local direct forms.
make me something to eat [later]!
(you pl) make me something to eat [later]!
make me something to eat [before I arrive]
make us something to eat [before I arrive]
(you pl) make me something to eat [before I arrive]
For the rest of the TA conjugations, the stem form ending in -t is used; the majority of forms for this stem end in -t.
TA VERBS WITH STEMS ENDING IN t (alternating with sh)
s/he blows on him/her
I blow on him/her
s/he likes him/her
I like you (pl)
s/he goes to meet him/her
you go to meet me
s/he dreams of him/her
I dream of him/her
s/he is afraid of him/her
you are not afraid of me
s/he makes a fire for him/her
you (pl) will make us a fire
s/he passes him/her
s/he doesn’t pass me
s/he shouts at him/her
don’t shout at me!
s/he cooks for him/her
you cook for him/her
s/he misses him/her
I miss them
s/he scolds him/her
s/he says goodbye to him/her
you say goodbye to us
s/he rocks him/her
s/he dresses him/her nicely
I dressed him/her nicely
s/he greets him/her
s/he didn’t greet us
NOTES ON SPELLING
With local inverse forms, the sequence -tit- is pronounced [-ht-] by Lower North Shore speakers: for example, in tshimińuatitinI like you [t∫ǝmǝnwa:htn], tshimińuatitinanwe like you or we like you (pl) [t∫ǝmǝnwa:htna:n], tshimińuatitininauI like you (pl) [t∫ǝmǝnwa:htna:w]. For these speakers, it’s important to remember to write the syllable replaced by [ht].
With mixed and non-local inverse forms, it is important to be aware of the phenomenon of vowel harmonisationLINGUISTICS: Vowel harmonisation (or vowel assimilation) is a “change undergone by a phoneme due to contact with a neighbouring phoneme”. (Dubois et al. 2012. Le dictionnaire de linguistique et des sciences du langage. Larousse, p. 55.) Here, ku influences the short vowel la preceding it, which is then pronounced [u]. See more on this in Short Vowels: a and i pronounced u before Cu Cᵘ for the sequences -iku and –iku: nimińuatiku [nǝmǝnwa:tukw] s/he likes me, mińuatiku [mǝnwa:tuku] s/he (obv) likes me.
Baraby, A.-M. & Junker, M.-O. (2014). Les radicaux de verbes. Dans Grammaire innue / Innu Grammar / Aimun-Mashinaikan. Repéré à [URL]
Anne-Marie Baraby et Marie-Odile Junker. Les radicaux de verbes. Dans Grammaire innue / Innu Grammar / Aimun-Mashinaikan. 2014. Web. [date]
[URL] = l’addresse du site web, débutant avec le “http://” [Date] = la date à laquelle la page a été consultée, écrit comme suit: 10 déc. 2013